Kino's National Parks and Protected Areas

Kino's New World Travels

Kino sailed the waters and rode across lands set aside by the national governments of the United States and Mexico and the state governments of the Baja Califorias, Sonora and Arizona.  These protected areas are being perserved for natural, cultural and historical conservation purposes. Below are national parks, monuments, reserves and wildlife refuges that are associated with Kino's journeys of exploration.

They are set out in chronological order using the first year of Kino's discovery togther with the duration of his years of contact. Below the title of each protected area is a link to an website for more information.

For website page links to maps and descriptions of Kino's sea voyages and land journeys, click Explorations.

The landscapes and seascapes of many of the protected areas that Kino traveled can be viewed by watching the natural history and travel series "The Desert Speaks." Below on this page are references made to the program title and its episode number for the protected area. The Emmy winning Desert Speaks series produced by KUAT-TV is distributed by American Public Television and hosted by Dr. David Yetman. An entire episode list with program summaries is at APT

Baja and Gulf of California and Other Sea Voyages
Gran Isla de las Californias 

United Nation's Conservation Report
Gulf of California Islands and Protected Areas

For Report describing fauna, flora and environment
Click Gulf Description

For Peninsula of Baja California Mapguide
Natiional Geographic Tourism
Click Baja 

For Gulf of Californa Maps
Click Protected Gulf 

Islas Marías, Islas Marietas and Isla Isabel National Park

1682 - 1686
Kino first began his first New World missionary efforts by passing between these islands and today's Riveria Nayrita as the Atondo-Kino Expediton first set sail from the port of Chacala to colonize Baja California .

Click Islas Marias
Click Islas Marietas  
Click Isla Isabel

Balandra Zone of Ecological Conservation & Community Interest

Near La Paz, Baja California Sur
The "Balandra" was the name of the remaining of three ships that the Atondo-Kino Expedition sailed to Baja. 
Click Balandra

The Desert Speaks
"Navigating a Desert Island"  - Episode 1802

More about The Desert Speaks above. For list of programs with episode numbers and summaries, click  APT 

Bahía de Loreto National Park and
Isla Espíritu Santo Migratory Flora and Fauna Reserve

1683 - 1685
Gulf of California and islands near Loreto, Baja California Sur
Click Bahía de Loreto

The Desert Speaks
"Marine Sanctuary: Preserving Desert Life"  - Episode 1803

Video: Loreto, Baja California Sur. Discover, Explore & Experience | Edición Aventura
Click Loreto Video

Isla San Pedro Martir

Click Isla San Pedro 

Islas del Golfo de California and Tiburon

1685; 1706
Kino is becalmed on Tiburon Island for 6 weeks and ministers to Seri people. 
Click Tiburon 
The Desert Speaks
"Baja Journeys: Volcanoes / Oceans"  - Episode 1311

San Lorenzo Marine Archipelago National Park and El Vizcaíno

Kino sails along the islands and coastal belt of El Vizcaino looking for new mission sites.
Click San Lorenzo 
Click El Vizcaino 

The Desert Speaks
"Desert Whales"  - Episode 1301
"Baja People: Oases / Mountains"  - Episode 1312
"Baja Boojums: Bizarre Plants"  - Episode 1313
"Sea of Cortez: Then and Now"  - Episode 1801

La Reserva de la Biosfora Sierra de Huautla

Kino passed through this arid tropical desert in today's state of Morelos on his way to Mexico City from Acapulco after disembarking from a ship that protected the Manilla Galleon from Dutch pirates.
Click Tropical Desert 

Sonora and Arizona
Pimería Alta 

Arizona - Sonora Desert Region Map Guide
National Geographic Geotourism

Map Guide in English
Click in English

Map Guide in Spanish
Click en Español 

La Reserva de la Biospera Mariposa Monarca

Kino travels through this protected area on several trips to Mexico City while advocating for a retrun to Baja. Kino again passes by while making his trip north to the unknown Pimería Alta where he will work for his last 24 years.
Clcik Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve

Meseta De Cacaxtla Nature Reserve

Click Meseta De Cacaxtla

Sierra de Álamos - Río Cuchujaqui

1687 - 1697
Click Sierra de Álamos 

The Desert Speaks
"Visiting Ancient Mayo Lands"  - Episode 1310 

Tumacácori National Historic Park

1691 - 1704
Kino first journey of exploration from his Mission Dolores headquarters. Tumacâcori National Historic Park includes the Tumacácori, Guevavi and Calabasas mission sites.
Click Tumacácor

Mission San Xavier del Bac

1792 - 1704
This operating parish church located on the Tohono O'odham Nation is the finest example of the Moorish - Baroque architecture in the United States. It is perserved through the work and the private donations made to the Patronado San Xavier.
Click Mission San Xavier and Patronado San Xavier

The Desert Speaks
"Living Traditions of the Tohono O'odham"  - Episode 1410
"Ageless Mud: Adobe Homes in the Desert"  - Episode 1710 

San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area

1692 - 1704
Kino makes many journeys to see Sobaípuris and Chief Coro who lived near today's ghost town of Fairbank near Tombstone.
Click San Pedro 
Click Fairbank HistoricTownsite

The Desert Speaks
"The Gadsden Purchase, Part 2"  - Episode 1902 

Las Cienegas National Conservation Areaa

1692 - 1704
Click Las Cienegas 

San Raphael State Natural Area - Arizona

1692 - 1708
Click San Raphael Ranch 

Sahuaro National Park

1692 - 1704
Kino will make many trips through the Sahuaro Forests as he travels to and from the Gila and today's Tohono O'odham Reservation.
Click Sahuaro Park 

Cerro de Trincheras

Kino on return trip to and from the Northern Gulf coast is first European to see largest trinchera complex.
Click Trincheras 

Ironwood Forest National Monument

1694 - 1700
Click Ironwood Forest 

Picacho Peak State Park - Arizona

1694 - 1700
Click Picacho Peak 

Casa Grande Ruins National Monument

1694 - 1700
Kino was first European to see the Casa Grande Ruins.
Click Casa Grande Ruins

The Desert Speaks
"River Runs Dry"  - Episode 1305

Hohokam Pima National Monument

1694 - 1700
Click Hohokam Pima 

Sonoita Creek State Natural Area - Arizona

Click Sonoita Creek 

Patagonia Lake State Park - Arizona

Click Patagonia Lake 

Ajos - Bavispe National Forest Reserve and Wildlife Refuge

1697 - 1710
Clcik Ajo - Bavispe

The Desert Speaks
"The Lost Palm Weavers of Sonora"  - Episode 1404
"Jaguars and Vaqueros"  - Episode 1906
"Dying Traditions in a Mexican Pueblo"   - Episode 1909

Sonoran Desert National Monument

1698 - 1700
Click Sonoran Desert 

The Desert Speaks
"Beyond the Asphalt - Part 1"  - Episode 1903

Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument

1698 - 1701
Clcik Organ Pipe 

The Desert Speaks
"Heart of the Sonoran Desert"  - Episode 1206
"Desert Missions"  - Episode 1207
"Of Drought and Fire"  - Episode 1612
The Desert Speaks
"The Gadsden Purchase, Part 2"  - Episode 1902 

Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge

1698 - 1701
Clcik Cabeza Prieta 

La Reserva de la Biosfera El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar

1698 - 1706
Kino is the first European to climb the Pinacates and see its extensive craters and volcanic fields and is stopped by the Great Dunes of the Colorado.

Click for Reserve's web page

Click for Kino's three explorations
Pinacate and Gran Desierto

The Desert Speaks
"Tracks in the Shifting Sand"  - Episode 1406 

Great Bend of the Gila National Monument - Proposed

1699 - 1700
Kino is the first European to travel along the Gila River from its junction with the Colorado River to Casa Grande. Later the trail first traveled by Kino is used by Anza Expedition 70 years later to settle California.

The National Trust for Historic Preservation has identified the proposed Great Bend of the Gila National Monument as the most important BLM cultural sites of the Southwest. There is a bill pending in the United States Congress authorizing its creation the national monument..

To view and download the study on the significance of the cultural resources and natural landscape recently released by Archaeology Southwest and the National Trust for Historic Preservation
Click "The Great Bend of the Gila: A Nationally Significant Cultural Landscape" 

For Dr. David Doyel's 39 minute video presentation 
Click The Archaeology Cafe 

Painted Rock Petroglyph Site

1699 - 1700
Kino is the first European to travel along the Gila River from its junction with the Colorado River to Casa Grande.

Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge

1699 - 1700
Clck Buenos Aires 

Yuma Crossing National Heritage Area

1700 - 1701
Kino is met by 1,700 native people of the Lower Colorado River Valley on his second and 4,000 native people on his third of a total of four visits to the Lower Gila river and the Colorado river and its delta.
Click Yuma Crossing 

The Desert Speaks
"The Gadsden Purchase, Part 2"  - Episode 1902 
"Beyond the Asphalt, Part 1"  - Episode 1903 

Reserva de la Biosfera Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado

Kino travels to the end of the Colorado River Delta to first prove that California was not an island as commonly believed but that California could be supplied by land.
Clck Colorado River Delta

Reserva Especial de la Biosfera Cajón de Diablo

Kino blazes new cattle trail to Guaymas port to supply restated Jesuit missions in Baja.
Click Cajón de Diablo  

The Desert Speaks
"Life Along the Rio Sonora"  - Episode 1507
"Sonora's Forgotten River"  - Episode 1711

Monumento Nacional al Padre Kino

Father Kino National Monument
The masoleum with the Kino's skeletal remains is a national monument of Mexico. It is located in the town square of the Magdalena de Kino at the site where Kino's grave was discovered by an international team of scientists in 1965.
The Kino Festiival is celebrated in Magdalena de Kino and throughout Sonora and Arizona during the week of the anniversary of the discovery on May 21st.
Click Grave Discovery

The Desert Speaks
"Sonora's Forgotten River" - Episode 1711
"Pilgrimage to a Party"  - Episode 1511

Protected Areas Related To Events After Kino's Death in 1711

Tubac Presidio State Historic Park - Arizona

Established 1752
Tubac Presidio was founded 40 years after Kino's death. Most of Kino's travels were without military escort and only as witnesses to friendliness of the O'odham people. The only Spanish military presidio during Kino's time was at Fronteras just south of today's Douglas, Arizona, fifty miles from Kino field of work.The Fronteras presidio  was established five years after Kino's arrival in 1687. 
Click Tubac Presdio Website
Click Tubac Presidio Video 

Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail 

1775 - 1776
During Kino's journeys of exploration, especially the four to the Colorado River and Lower Gila River, Kino established peaceful relationships with the Native People he encountered whiile blazing the trails that were followed by the Anza Expeditons 70 years later. Also without Kino's advocacy and his supplying grain and cattle that supported the restarted Jesuit missions in Baja California, Portola and Serra would not have had Baja as their springboard for the future settlement of Alta California by the Spanish.Kino also established Pious Fund of the Californias that provided financial support for the California missions to the early 20th century.
Click Anza Trail 

Hangzhou Cathedral and Defangjing Jesuit Cemetery - China

Jesuit missionary and famed historian and geographer of China Father Martin Martini (1614-1661) met his 10 year old cousin Eusebio Kino in 1655 as he was traveling through his home province of Trento. Martini was returing from China after 10 years of missionary work when he met young Kino on his way to Rome. Their meeting perhaps inspired Kino's desire to serve as a missionary in China. In Rome Martini successfully defended his fellow Jesuit missionaries before Vatican authorities concerning the "Chinese Rites Affair."  Martini made the difficult journey back to China and finished building Hangzhou's beautiful Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception Cathedral just before his death. He died of cholera while caring for others during an epidemic. The Hangzhou Cathedral is a Hanzchou Municipal Historic site. The Dufangjing Jesuit Cemetery where Martini is buried is a Zhejiang Province Historic site. Martini is the father of the scientific study of Chinese geography and his many books first introduced Europeans to the then little known history, geography and language of China. Martini's observations were as monumental as Copernicus in European intellectual history. European were astonished that China civilization was in existence before the then believed date for the creation of the world.   
Click Hangzhou Cathedral.  

In 1698 Exploration Kino Visits
Eight National Parks & Additional Protected Areas

Kino's 1698 Journey Across Southern Arizona to Gulf of California

Kino was the first European to see, and on one of his explorations, to visit seven of today's national parks and many other protected land reserves in Southern Arizona and Northern Sonora.

 In one journey of exploration in the Fall of 1698 Kino rode on horseback 500 miles in 25 days as he explored in the United States:

[1] Tumacácori National Historical Park
[2] Tohono O'odham Indian Reservation
[3] Mission San Xavier del Bac
[4] Sahuaro National Park
[5] Ironwood Forest National Monument
[6] Picacho Peak Arizona State Park
[7] Casa Grande Ruins National Monument
[8] Gila River Indian Reservation
[9] Hohokam Pima National Monument (closed to public)
[10] Ak Chin Indian Reservation
[11] Sonoran Desert National Monument
[12] Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge
[13] Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument
[14] Barry M. Goldwater Air Force Range

In Mexico, Kino explored

[15] Reserva de la Biosphere El Pinacate
[16] Cerro de Trincheras

Kino travel to the future site of the Tubac Presidio Arizona State Historic Park [16]. He trail blazed parts of the later travels on the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail [1 through 11] and the proposed Butterfield Overland Trail National Historic Trail [3 through 11]. In his other explorations Kino traveled these national trails in Arizona and visited other protected lands listed above in the United States and Mexico.

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